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Quantum Machine Studying (QML) represents a captivating convergence of quantum computing and machine studying applied sciences. With quantum computing’s potential in arithmetic and information processing with advanced construction, QML may revolutionize areas like drug discovery, finance, and past. This weblog delves into the progressive realms of quantum neural networks (QNNs) and quantum kernel strategies, showcasing their distinctive capabilities by means of sensible Python examples. The weblog won’t element the mathematical ideas. For extra info don’t hesitate to learn my newest guide *Machine Studying Idea and Functions: Arms-on Use Instances with Python on Classical and Quantum Machines, *Wiley, 2024.

Quantum kernel strategies, introduce a quantum-enhanced means of processing information. By mapping classical information into quantum characteristic area, these strategies make the most of the superposition and entanglement properties of quantum mechanics to carry out classifications or regression duties. The usage of quantum kernel estimator and quantum variational classifier examples illustrates the sensible utility of those ideas. QNNs, leveraging quantum states for computation, supply a novel strategy to neural community structure. The Qiskit framework facilitates the implementation of each quantum kernel strategies and QNNs, enabling the exploration of quantum algorithms’ effectivity in studying and sample recognition.

Incorporating Python code examples, this weblog goals to offer complete code examples of QML for readers to discover its promising purposes, and the challenges it faces. By means of these examples, readers can begin practising and achieve an appreciation for the transformative potential of quantum computing in machine studying and the thrilling potentialities that lie forward.

We are going to use the open-source SDK Qiskit (https://qiskit.org) which permits working with quantum computer systems. Qiskit helps Python model 3.6 or later.

In our surroundings, we will set up Qiskit with pip:

`pip set up qiskit`

We will additionally set up qiskit-machine-learning utilizing pip:

`pip set up qiskit-machine-learning`

Documentation will be discovered on GitHub: https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-machine-learning/.

To run our code, we will use both simulators or actual {hardware} even when I strongly advocate the usage of {hardware} or push the bounds of simulators to enhance analysis on this subject. Whereas learning the Qiskit documentation, you’ll encounter references to the Qiskit Runtime primitives, which function implementations of the Sampler and Estimator interfaces discovered within the qiskit.primitives module. These interfaces facilitate the seamless interchangeability of primitive implementations with minimal code modifications. The preliminary launch of Qiskit Runtime contains two important primitives:

- Sampler: This primitive generates quasi-probabilities primarily based on enter circuits.
- Estimator: This primitive calculates expectation values derived from enter circuits and observables.

For extra complete insights, detailed info is out there within the following useful resource: https://qiskit.org/ecosystem/ibm-runtime/tutorials/how-to-getting-started-with-sampler.html.

Venturing into quantum approaches for supervised machine studying poses a novel analysis route. Classical machine studying extensively makes use of kernel strategies, amongst which the help vector machine (SVM) for classification stands out for its widespread utility.

SVMs, recognized for his or her function in binary classification, have more and more been utilized to multiclass issues. The essence of binary SVM entails devising a hyperplane to linearly separate n-dimensional information factors into two teams, aiming for an optimum margin that distinctively classifies the info into its respective classes. This hyperplane, efficient in both the unique characteristic area or a reworked higher-dimensional kernel area, is chosen for its capability to maximise the separation between lessons, which entails an optimization drawback to maximise the margin, outlined as the gap from the closest information level to the hyperplane on both facet. This results in the formulation of a maximum-margin classifier. The essential information factors on the boundary are termed help vectors, and the margin represents a zone usually devoid of knowledge factors. An optimum hyperplane too proximate to the info factors, indicating a slender margin, undermines the mannequin’s predictive robustness and generalization functionality.

To navigate multiclass SVM challenges, strategies just like the all-pair technique, which conducts a binary classification for every pair of lessons, have been launched. Past simple linear classification, nonlinear classifications will be achieved by means of the kernel trick. This system employs a kernel perform to raise inputs right into a extra expansive, higher-dimensional characteristic area, facilitating the separation of knowledge that’s not linearly separable within the enter area. The kernel perform primarily performs an interior product in a probably huge Euclidian area, often called the characteristic area. The objective of nonlinear SVM is to realize this separation by mapping information to the next dimension utilizing an appropriate mapping. Choosing an applicable characteristic map turns into essential for information that can’t be addressed by linear strategies alone. That is the place quantum can bounce into it. Quantum kernel strategies, mixing classical kernel methods with quantum improvements, carve out new avenues in machine studying. Early quantum kernel approaches have targeted on encoding information factors into interior merchandise or amplitudes in Hilbert area by means of quantum characteristic maps. The complexity of the quantum circuit implementing the characteristic map scales linearly or polylogarithmically with the dataset measurement.

On this first instance, we’ll use the ZZFeatureMap with linear entanglement, we’ll repeat the info encoding step two occasions, and we’ll use characteristic discount with principal element evaluation. You’ll be able to after all use different characteristic discount, information rescaling or characteristic choice strategies to enhance the accuracy of your fashions. We are going to use the breast most cancers dataset that yow will discover right here: https://github.com/xaviervasques/hephaistos/blob/principal/information/datasets/breastcancer.csv

Let’s describe the steps of the Python script beneath. This Python script demonstrates an utility of integrating quantum computing strategies with conventional machine studying to categorise breast most cancers information. It represents a hybrid strategy, the place quantum-enhanced options are used inside a classical machine studying workflow. The objective is to foretell breast most cancers analysis (benign or malignant) primarily based on a set of options extracted from the breast mass traits.

The way in which of doing quantum kernel machine studying is similar to what we do classically as information scientists. We import the mandatory libraries (Pandas, NumPy, scikit-learn) and Qiskit for quantum computing and kernel estimation, we load the info, preprocess the info and separate the info into options (X) and goal labels (y). A selected step is the quantum characteristic mapping. The script units up a quantum characteristic map utilizing the ZZFeatureMap from Qiskit, configured with specified parameters for characteristic dimension, repetitions, and entanglement sort. Quantum characteristic maps are essential for translating classical information into quantum states, enabling the applying of quantum computing ideas for information evaluation. Then, the quantum kernel setup consists in configuring a quantum kernel with a fidelity-based strategy. It serves as a brand new technique to compute the similarity between information factors within the characteristic area outlined by quantum states and probably capturing advanced patterns. The final step comes again to a traditional machine studying pipeline with information rescaling with normal scaler, dimension discount utilizing principal element evaluation and the usage of help vector classifier (SVC) which makes use of the quantum kernel for classification. We consider the mannequin utilizing 5-fold cross-validation.

Let’s code.

`# Import crucial libraries for information manipulation, machine studying, and quantum computing`

import pandas as pd

import numpy as np

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder# Load the dataset utilizing pandas, specifying the file location and delimiter

breastcancer = './breastcancer.csv'

df = pd.read_csv(breastcancer, delimiter=';')

# Take away the 'id' column as it's not helpful for prediction, to simplify the dataset

df = df.drop(["id"], axis=1)

# Separate the dataset into options (X) and goal label (y)

y = df['diagnosis'] # Goal label: analysis

X = df.drop('analysis', axis=1) # Options: all different columns

# Convert the analysis string labels into numeric values for use by machine studying fashions

label_encoder = LabelEncoder()

y = label_encoder.fit_transform(y)

# Quantum computing sections begin right here

# Set parameters for the quantum characteristic map

feature_dimension = 2 # Variety of options used within the quantum characteristic map

reps = 2 # Variety of repetitions of the characteristic map circuit

entanglement = 'linear' # Kind of entanglement within the quantum circuit

# Import quantum characteristic mapping utilities from Qiskit

from qiskit.circuit.library import ZZFeatureMap

qfm = ZZFeatureMap(feature_dimension=feature_dimension, reps=reps, entanglement=entanglement)

# Arrange an area simulator for quantum computation

from qiskit.primitives import Sampler

sampler = Sampler()

# Configure quantum kernel utilizing ZZFeatureMap and a fidelity-based quantum kernel

from qiskit.algorithms.state_fidelities import ComputeUncompute

from qiskit_machine_learning.kernels import FidelityQuantumKernel

constancy = ComputeUncompute(sampler=sampler)

quantum_zz = FidelityQuantumKernel(constancy=constancy, feature_map=qfm)

# Create a machine studying pipeline integrating normal scaler, PCA for dimensionality discount,

# and a Help Vector Classifier utilizing the quantum kernel

from sklearn.pipeline import make_pipeline

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler

from sklearn.decomposition import PCA

from sklearn.svm import SVC

pipeline = make_pipeline(StandardScaler(), PCA(n_components=2), SVC(kernel=quantum_zz.consider))

# Consider the mannequin utilizing cross-validation to evaluate its efficiency

from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score

cv = cross_val_score(pipeline, X, y, cv=5, n_jobs=1) # n_jobs=1 specifies that the computation will use 1 CPU

mean_score = np.imply(cv) # Calculate the imply of the cross-validation scores

# Print the imply cross-validation rating to judge the mannequin's efficiency

print(mean_score)

We are going to acquire a imply rating validation rating of 0.63.

This code is executed with the native simulator. To run on actual {hardware}, change the next traces:

`# Arrange an area simulator for quantum computation`

from qiskit.primitives import Sampler

sampler = Sampler()

by

`# Import crucial lessons from qiskit_ibm_runtime for accessing IBM Quantum companies`

from qiskit_ibm_runtime import QiskitRuntimeService, Sampler# Initialize the QiskitRuntimeService together with your IBM Quantum credentials

# 'channel', 'token', and 'occasion' are placeholders on your precise IBM Quantum account particulars

service = QiskitRuntimeService(channel='YOUR CHANNEL', token='YOUR TOKEN FROM IBM QUANTUM', occasion='YOUR INSTANCE')

# Specify the backend you want to use. This could possibly be a simulator or an precise quantum laptop out there by means of IBM Quantum

# 'quantum_backend' must be changed with the identify of the quantum backend you want to use

backend = service.backend('quantum_backend')

# Import the Choices class to customise the execution of quantum packages

from qiskit_ibm_runtime import Choices

choices = Choices() # Create an occasion of Choices

# Set the resilience stage. Degree 1 usually implies some stage of error mitigation or resilience in opposition to errors

choices.resilience_level = 1

# Set the variety of photographs, which is the variety of occasions the quantum circuit will probably be executed to collect statistics

# Extra photographs can result in extra correct outcomes however take longer to execute

choices.execution.photographs = 1024

# Set the optimization stage for compiling the quantum circuit

# Increased optimization ranges try to cut back the circuit's complexity, which might enhance execution however could take longer to compile

choices.optimization_level = 3

# Initialize the Sampler, which is used to run quantum circuits and procure samples from their measurement outcomes

# The Sampler is configured with the required backend and choices

sampler = Sampler(session=backend, choices=choices)

This half will discover the tactic of Quantum Kernel Alignment (QKA) for the aim of binary classification. QKA iteratively adjusts a quantum kernel that’s parameterized to suit a dataset, aiming for the biggest potential margin in Help Vector Machines (SVM). For additional particulars on QKA, reference is made to the preprint titled “Covariant quantum kernels for information with group construction.” The Python script beneath is a complete instance of integrating conventional machine studying strategies with quantum computing for the prediction accuracy in classifying breast most cancers analysis. It employs a dataset of breast most cancers traits to foretell the analysis (benign or malignant).

The machine studying pipeline is just like the one used within the quantum kernel with ZZFeatureMaps part. The distinction is that we’ll constructs a customized quantum circuit, integrating a rotational layer with a ZZFeatureMap, to arrange the quantum state representations of the info. The quantum kernel estimation step makes use of Qiskit primitives and algorithms for optimizing the quantum kernel’s parameters utilizing a quantum kernel educated (QKT) and an optimizer.

Let’s code.

`# Import crucial libraries for information manipulation, machine studying, and quantum computing`

import pandas as pd

import numpy as np

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder# Load the dataset utilizing pandas, specifying the file location and delimiter

breastcancer = './breastcancer.csv'

df = pd.read_csv(breastcancer, delimiter=';')

# Take away the 'id' column as it's not helpful for prediction, to simplify the dataset

df = df.drop(["id"], axis=1)

# Scale back the dataframe measurement by sampling 1/3 of the info

df = df.pattern(frac=1/3, random_state=1) # random_state for reproducibility

# Separate the dataset into options (X) and goal label (y)

y = df['diagnosis'] # Goal label: analysis

X = df.drop('analysis', axis=1) # Options: all different columns

# Convert the analysis string labels into numeric values for use by machine studying fashions

label_encoder = LabelEncoder()

y = label_encoder.fit_transform(y)

# Quantum computing sections begin right here

# Set parameters for the quantum characteristic map

feature_dimension = 2 # Variety of options used within the quantum characteristic map

reps = 2 # Variety of repetitions of the characteristic map circuit

entanglement = 'linear' # Kind of entanglement within the quantum circuit

# Outline a customized rotational layer for the quantum characteristic map

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit

from qiskit.circuit import ParameterVector

training_params = ParameterVector("θ", 1)

fm0 = QuantumCircuit(feature_dimension)

for qubit in vary(feature_dimension):

fm0.ry(training_params[0], qubit)

# Use ZZFeatureMap to symbolize enter information

from qiskit.circuit.library import ZZFeatureMap

fm1 = ZZFeatureMap(feature_dimension=feature_dimension, reps=reps, entanglement=entanglement)

# Compose the customized rotational layer with the ZZFeatureMap to create the characteristic map

fm = fm0.compose(fm1)

# Initialize the Sampler, a Qiskit primitive for sampling from quantum circuits

from qiskit.primitives import Sampler

sampler = Sampler()

# Arrange the ComputeUncompute constancy object for quantum kernel estimation

from qiskit.algorithms.state_fidelities import ComputeUncompute

from qiskit_machine_learning.kernels import TrainableFidelityQuantumKernel

constancy = ComputeUncompute(sampler=sampler)

# Instantiate the quantum kernel with the characteristic map and coaching parameters

quant_kernel = TrainableFidelityQuantumKernel(constancy=constancy, feature_map=fm, training_parameters=training_params)

# Callback class for monitoring optimization progress

class QKTCallback:

# Callback wrapper class

def __init__(self):

self._data = [[] for i in vary(5)]

def callback(self, x0, x1=None, x2=None, x3=None, x4=None):

#Seize callback information for evaluation

for i, x in enumerate([x0, x1, x2, x3, x4]):

self._data[i].append(x)

def get_callback_data(self):

#Get captured callback information

return self._data

def clear_callback_data(self):

#Clear captured callback information

self._data = [[] for i in vary(5)]

# Setup and instantiate the optimizer for the quantum kernel

from qiskit.algorithms.optimizers import SPSA

cb_qkt = QKTCallback()

spsa_opt = SPSA(maxiter=10, callback=cb_qkt.callback, learning_rate=0.01, perturbation=0.05)

# Quantum Kernel Coach (QKT) for optimizing the kernel parameters

from qiskit_machine_learning.kernels.algorithms import QuantumKernelTrainer

qkt = QuantumKernelTrainer(

quantum_kernel=quant_kernel, loss="svc_loss", optimizer=spsa_opt, initial_point=[np.pi / 2]

)

# Scale back dimensionality of the info utilizing PCA

from sklearn.decomposition import PCA

pca = PCA(n_components=2)

X_ = pca.fit_transform(X)

# Practice the quantum kernel with the lowered dataset

qka_results = qkt.match(X_, y)

optimized_kernel = qka_results.quantum_kernel

# Use the quantum-enhanced kernel in a Quantum Help Vector Classifier (QSVC)

from qiskit_machine_learning.algorithms import QSVC

from sklearn.pipeline import make_pipeline

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler

qsvc = QSVC(quantum_kernel=optimized_kernel)

pipeline = make_pipeline(StandardScaler(), PCA(n_components=2), qsvc)

# Consider the efficiency of the mannequin utilizing cross-validation

from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score

cv = cross_val_score(pipeline, X, y, cv=5, n_jobs=1)

mean_score = np.imply(cv)

# Print the imply cross-validation rating

print(mean_score)

We are going to acquire the next output: 0.6526315789473685

As you definitely noticed, there’s time variations in execution between QKT and utilizing a quantum kernel with a predefined characteristic map like ZZFeatureMap even when we lowered the dataframe measurement by sampling 1/3 of the info and setting the utmost iteration for SPSA to 10. QKT entails not solely the usage of a quantum kernel but additionally the optimization of parameters throughout the quantum characteristic map or the kernel itself to enhance mannequin efficiency. This optimization course of requires iterative changes to the parameters, the place every iteration entails operating quantum computations to judge the efficiency of the present parameter set. This iterative nature considerably will increase computational time. When utilizing a predefined quantum kernel just like the ZZFeatureMap, the characteristic mapping is fastened, and there’s no iterative optimization of quantum parameters concerned. The quantum computations are carried out to judge the kernel between information factors, however with out the added overhead of adjusting and optimizing quantum circuit parameters. This strategy is extra simple and requires fewer quantum computations, making it quicker. Every step of the optimization course of in QKT requires evaluating the mannequin’s efficiency with the present quantum kernel, which is dependent upon the quantum characteristic map parameters at that step. This implies a number of evaluations of the kernel matrix, every of which requires a considerable variety of quantum computations.

This Python script beneath incorporates quantum neural networks (QNNs) right into a machine studying pipeline. Within the script, we have to configure the quantum characteristic map and ansatz (a quantum circuit construction), assemble a quantum circuit by appending the characteristic map and ansatz to a base quantum circuit (this setup is essential for creating quantum neural networks that course of enter information quantum mechanically) and create a QNN utilizing the quantum circuit designed for binary classification. Earlier than coming again to the traditional machine studying pipeline with information rescaling, information discount and mannequin analysis, we make use of a quantum classifier which integrates the QNN with a classical optimization algorithm (COBYLA) for coaching. A callback perform is outlined to visualise the optimization course of, monitoring the target perform worth throughout iterations.

Let’s code.

`# Importing important libraries for dealing with information, machine studying, and integrating quantum computing`

import pandas as pd

import numpy as np

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

from sklearn.preprocessing import LabelEncoder

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt # For information visualization# Load and put together the dataset

breastcancer = './breastcancer.csv'

df = pd.read_csv(breastcancer, delimiter=';') # Load dataset from CSV file

df = df.drop(["id"], axis=1) # Take away the 'id' column as it is not crucial for evaluation

# Splitting the info into options (X) and the goal variable (y)

y = df['diagnosis'] # Goal variable: analysis end result

X = df.drop('analysis', axis=1) # Characteristic matrix: all information besides the analysis

# Encoding string labels in 'y' into numerical kind for machine studying fashions

label_encoder = LabelEncoder()

y = label_encoder.fit_transform(y) # Remodel labels to numeric

# Quantum characteristic map and circuit configuration

feature_dimension = 2 # Dimensionality for the characteristic map (matches PCA discount later)

reps = 2 # Variety of repetitions of the ansatz circuit for depth

entanglement = 'linear' # Kind of qubit entanglement within the circuit

# Initialize an array to retailer evaluations of the target perform throughout optimization

objective_func_vals = []

# Outline a callback perform for visualization of the optimization course of

def callback_graph(weights, obj_func_eval):

"""Updates and saves a plot of the target perform worth after every iteration."""

objective_func_vals.append(obj_func_eval)

plt.title("Goal perform worth in opposition to iteration")

plt.xlabel("Iteration")

plt.ylabel("Goal perform worth")

plt.plot(vary(len(objective_func_vals)), objective_func_vals)

plt.savefig('Objective_function_value_against_iteration.png') # Save plot to file

# Instance perform indirectly utilized in the principle workflow, demonstrating a utility perform

def parity(x):

"""Instance perform to calculate parity of an integer."""

return "{:b}".format(x).depend("1") % 2

# Initializing the quantum sampler from Qiskit

from qiskit.primitives import Sampler

sampler = Sampler() # Used for sampling from quantum circuits

# Establishing the quantum characteristic map and ansatz for the quantum circuit

from qiskit.circuit.library import ZZFeatureMap, RealAmplitudes

feature_map = ZZFeatureMap(feature_dimension)

ansatz = RealAmplitudes(feature_dimension, reps=reps) # Quantum circuit ansatz

# Composing the quantum circuit with the characteristic map and ansatz

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit

qc = QuantumCircuit(feature_dimension)

qc.append(feature_map, vary(feature_dimension)) # Apply characteristic map to circuit

qc.append(ansatz, vary(feature_dimension)) # Apply ansatz to circuit

qc.decompose().draw() # Draw and decompose circuit for visualization

# Making a Quantum Neural Community (QNN) utilizing the configured quantum circuit

from qiskit_machine_learning.neural_networks import SamplerQNN

sampler_qnn = SamplerQNN(

circuit=qc,

input_params=feature_map.parameters,

weight_params=ansatz.parameters,

output_shape=2, # For binary classification

sampler=sampler

)

# Configuring the quantum classifier with the COBYLA optimizer

from qiskit.algorithms.optimizers import COBYLA

from qiskit_machine_learning.algorithms.classifiers import NeuralNetworkClassifier

sampler_classifier = NeuralNetworkClassifier(

neural_network=sampler_qnn, optimizer=COBYLA(maxiter=100), callback=callback_graph)

# Establishing Okay-Fold Cross Validation to evaluate mannequin efficiency

from sklearn.model_selection import KFold

k_fold = KFold(n_splits=5) # 5-fold cross-validation

rating = np.zeros(5) # Array to retailer scores for every fold

i = 0 # Index counter for scores array

for indices_train, indices_test in k_fold.cut up(X):

X_train, X_test = X.iloc[indices_train], X.iloc[indices_test]

y_train, y_test = y[indices_train], y[indices_test]

# Making use of PCA to cut back the dimensionality of the dataset to match the quantum characteristic map

from sklearn.decomposition import PCA

pca = PCA(n_components=2) # Scale back to 2 dimensions for the quantum circuit

X_train = pca.fit_transform(X_train) # Remodel coaching set

X_test = pca.fit_transform(X_test) # Remodel take a look at set

# Coaching the quantum classifier with the coaching set

sampler_classifier.match(X_train, y_train)

# Evaluating the classifier's efficiency on the take a look at set

rating[i] = sampler_classifier.rating(X_test, y_test) # Retailer rating for this fold

i += 1 # Increment index for subsequent rating

# Calculating and displaying the outcomes of cross-validation

import math

print("Cross-validation scores:", rating)

cross_mean = np.imply(rating) # Imply of cross-validation scores

cross_var = np.var(rating) # Variance of scores

cross_std = math.sqrt(cross_var) # Normal deviation of scores

print("Imply cross-validation rating:", cross_mean)

print("Normal deviation of cross-validation scores:", cross_std)

We acquire the next outcomes:

Cross-validation scores: [0.34210526 0.4122807 0.42982456 0.21929825 0.50442478]

Imply cross-validation rating: 0.3815867101381773

Normal deviation of cross-validation scores: 0.09618163326986424

As we will see, on this particular dataset, QNN doesn’t present an excellent classification rating.

This concept of this weblog is to make it straightforward to start out utilizing quantum machine studying. Quantum Machine Studying is an rising subject on the intersection of quantum computing and machine studying that holds the potential to revolutionize how we course of and analyze huge datasets by leveraging the inherent benefits of quantum mechanics. As we confirmed in our paper *Utility of quantum machine studying utilizing quantum kernel algorithms on multiclass neuron M-type classification* printed in Nature Scientific Report, a vital facet of optimizing QML fashions, together with Quantum Neural Networks (QNNs), entails pre-processing strategies equivalent to characteristic rescaling, characteristic extraction, and have choice.

These strategies usually are not solely important in classical machine studying but additionally current vital advantages when utilized throughout the quantum computing framework, enhancing the efficiency and effectivity of quantum machine studying algorithms. Within the quantum realm, characteristic extraction strategies like Principal Part Evaluation (PCA) will be quantum-enhanced to cut back the dimensionality of the info whereas retaining most of its vital info. This discount is important for QML fashions because of the restricted variety of qubits out there on present quantum {hardware}.

Quantum characteristic extraction can effectively map high-dimensional information right into a lower-dimensional quantum area, enabling quantum fashions to course of advanced datasets with fewer sources. Choosing probably the most related options can be a means for optimizing quantum circuit complexity and useful resource allocation. In quantum machine studying, characteristic choice helps in figuring out and using probably the most informative options, decreasing the necessity for intensive quantum sources.

This course of not solely simplifies the quantum fashions but additionally enhances their efficiency by focusing the computational efforts on the options that contribute probably the most to the predictive accuracy of the mannequin.

**Sources**

*Vasques, X., Paik, H. & Cif, L. Utility of quantum machine studying utilizing quantum kernel algorithms on multiclass neuron M-type classification. Sci Rep 13, 11541 (2023). **https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-38558-z*

This dataset used is licensed underneath a Artistic Commons Attribution 4.0 Worldwide (CC BY 4.0) license.

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