Elective I: Forensic Ballistics And Bodily Sciences (Reality & Reality Plus Might 2024)




I. Forensic Physics

1) Common Tips for Bodily Proof Assortment

Proof assortment from crime scene, sufferer & deceased in circumstances of – Murder Investigation; Investigation of – Dying as a result of fall from top, sexual offences and intercourse associated murder, Hanging (suicidal, unintentional and homicidal), Paint, Glass, Soil, Fibre, Metals.

Sources of Displays, Targets of Proof Packaging- Safety of Proof from potential hazards; Parts of Packaging Proof – Packing Materials, Sealing of Proof; Precautions, Common Instructions, Instructions for Particular sort of Displays – Weapons and instruments, Hair and Fibres, Mud or Soil, Arson Instances and Instances of Burning, Software Marks.

2) Analytical Devices & Strategies of Forensic Physics

Microscope, Compound Microscope, Polarized Gentle Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, Comparability Microscope, Stereo-zoom Microscope. Transmission Electron Microscope, Video-zoom Microscope. Scanning Electron Microscope – Vitality Dispersive X-Ray. Atomic Drive Microscope.

Introduction to spectrophotometry, Interplay of electromagnetic radiations with matter: phenomena of absorption, emission, reflection, fluorescence, phosphorescence.

Detection of radiations: Photographic detectors, thermal detectors, photoelectric detectors.

Fundamental ideas of atomic spectra, power ranges, quantum numbers, designation of states, choice guidelines, atomic spectra.

Ultraviolet and visual spectrophotometry: sampling gadgets, Lambert and Beers Legislation, calibration of instrument, Infrared spectrophotometry, Excessive Decision. Detectors. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. rotational, vibrational and digital spectra, spectra of polyatomic molecules.

Parts of X-ray spectrometry: Vitality Dispersive X-ray Evaluation (EDX), wavelength Dispersive X-ray evaluation (WDX), X-ray diffraction, Auger emission spectroscopy and purposes.

Radio chemical strategies: Fundamental ideas and idea introduction about nuclear reactions and radiations, Neutron sources, Neutron Activation Evaluation. Fundamentals of Electrostatic.

Impact of Chemical Construction and solvent on absorption spectra, qualitative and quantitative evaluation and limitations. Purposes in forensic chemistry and toxicology.

Infrared spectrophotometry: Fundamental precept, elements, Pattern dealing with, Dispersive and Fourier rework spectrophotometry, (FTIR). Qualitative evaluation and interpretation of IR spectra, correlation of infrared spectra with molecular construction and purposes in forensic chemistry and toxicology.

Raman Spectroscopy: Fundamental ideas, Instrumentation, pattern dealing with and illumination, structural evaluation, polarization measurements and Dispersive & FT evaluation and Purposes in Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology. Benefit of Raman over IR and vice versa, Function of microscope.

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS): Instrumentation, interference in AAS, background correction strategies, graphite furnace quantitative evaluation and purposes. Detection restrict and sensitivity.

Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES): Instrumentation and strategies, arc/spark emission, ICP-AES, comparability of ICP vs AAS strategies, quantitative evaluation, ESCA and its purposes.

Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy: Kinds of sources, structural components, instrumentation, comparability of luminescence and UV-visible absorption strategies and purposes.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Fundamental ideas, idea and Instrumentation and purposes.

3) Sample Proof

Software marks- Varieties, Class and Particular person Traits, Comparisons, Impression Marks, Compression Marks, Striated Marks, Mixture of Impression and Striated Marks, Repetitive Marks, Supplies for making Take a look at Software Marks, Strategies of preparation of Take a look at Software Marks, Comparability of check and proof software marks, Rubber Stamp Impressions, Metallic Seal Impressions, Embossed Impressions and Indentation marks, Mechanical Impressions.

Solid, Engraved and Punched Marks – Strategies of their restoration.

Glass: forms of glass and their composition, manufacturing of varied forms of glass and their properties.

Soil- Formation, Varieties, Composition and bodily properties.

Paints- Composition, Varieties, Manufacturing and bodily properties of paints.

Fibre- Varieties, Constituents & their forensic significance.

Impression Proof: Kinds of Impression Proof, Significance of Impression Proof. Tyre Marks Comparability. Skid marks, Serial numbers restoration.

Audio: Fundamentals of sound, human ear and voice, Sound recording and copy, Forensic significance of voice.

Fundamental ideas and strategies of black & white and color images; Digicam and lenses, exposing, improvement & printing, totally different sorts of builders & fixers, trendy developments in images; Digital images, Working of SLR & DSLR Cameras and fundamentals of Digital Imaging Pictures, photo-morphing, Crime Scene images, Laboratory images; Transient about speaker identification & tape authentication strategies and their purposes in forensic science, Knowledge Mining Strategies.

Videography: forms of video cameras, recording of playback strategy of analog video, recording and playback strategy of analog video, fundamentals of video codecs and file codecs.

Restoration: Restoration of erased numbers, strategies of marking-cast, punch and engraved, strategies used for removing of serial numbers, idea behind quantity restoration, restoration of marks on forged iron, Aluminum, brass, wooden, leather-based and so on., chemical strategies of restoration (etching), reagents used for varied metals, electrolytic strategies of restoration-reagents used, ultrasonic cavitation for restoration, magnetic particle technique for restoration, different strategies of restoration, laser etched serial numbers and bar codes and their restoration, recording of restored marks.

4) Necessities of Arithmetic & Statistics In Forensic Physics

Quantity methods and their Representations, Models of measurement and their conversion, Coping with Uncertainties in measurement. Kinds of Knowledge, Fundamental ideas of frequency distribution, Measure of Central Values – Imply, Median and Mode, Measures of Dispersion, Vary, Imply Deviation and Normal Deviation, Correlation and Regression Evaluation.

Variance – Coefficient of variation, Second, Coefficient of Regression, Correlated Measurements.

Likelihood Concept: Overview and Fundamental phrases – Occasions, Trials, Mutually Unique occasions, Favorable Occasions, Exhaustive Occasions and so on., Baye’s theorem, Addition and Multiplication theorem, Conditional Likelihood, Binomial Likelihood distribution, Regular Distribution, Hyper-geometric distribution, Purposes – Matching of hair proof, Uniqueness of Fingerprints.

Assessments of Speculation – Take a look at of Significance of attributes, pattern check, t-test and comparability of datasets, Paired Take a look at, Chi-Sq. check, F-test for equality of variance, Giant pattern check, Regular Take a look at, Pearson’s ꭓ2 check. Discriminating Energy and Proof Significance: Derivation, Analysis of proof, Switch of proof – Chance Ratio, Likelihood of guilt, Correspondence possibilities, Weight of Proof.

5) Forensic Voice Authentication

Physics of sound: waves and sound, evaluation and synthesis of advanced waves, Human and non-human utterances, anatomy of vocal tract, vocal formants, evaluation of vocal sound, frequencies and overtones.

Electronics of Audio Recording, Transmission and Playback gadgets, noise and distortion, voice storage and preservation

Forensic Linguistics: Phonetics, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Stylistics, Pragmatics, Script, orthography and graphology, Distinction between language and speech, Psycholinguistics, Neurolinguistics, Sociolinguistics, Scientific approaches; Reliability and admissibility of proof within the courtroom, linguistic profile, language register.

Discourse Evaluation: Connivance, acceptance, listening suggestions and rejection within the context of Mens-Rea, Narrative, Dialectology, Linguistic selection as a geographical marker, Idiolects and speaker characterization, Phonology, Morphology and Phrase formation processes as particular person linguistic skills.

Varied approaches in Forensic Speaker Identification, Instrumental Evaluation of speech pattern, Interpretation of end result, Statistical interpretation of likelihood scale, Goal/Subjective strategies, discriminating exams, closed check, open check, probability ratio calculation, Idea of check and error in Speaker Identification, case research.

Strategies and Greatest Practices for examination of Audio recording authentication and case research.

Computerized speaker identification and verification system based mostly on fuzzy logics, neural community, MPCC and so on.,

Voice Biometrics VoIP and different modes of speech communication and their forensic evaluation

6) Forensic Video Evaluation

Introduction to video know-how: digital images, scanning, synchronizing the analog sign, Digital sign processing, colour video, Digital tv commonplace, HD Video, digital scopes, compression, picture acquisition and recording codecs, optical media, time code, audio for video, shows, Kinds of video Digicam

Fundamentals of CCTV, scope recognizing CCTV proof & its nature, forms of DVRs, DVR recording, proof, greatest practices of CCTV proof retrieval and storage at scene of crime and laboratory, challenges and precaution on the scene of crime, proof dealing with process, authorized points, really useful equipments wanted.

Watermarking, Interlacing, De-interlacing, Double Compression, Duplication, Reprojection

Forensic evaluation: Greatest practices of assortment, restoration, enhancement, evaluation and interpretation of video proof

Facial picture recognition, car registration plate picture enhancement, overseas object detection, Authentication of Video proof, video supply identification strategies, Case research

7) Criminalistics and Forensic Engineering

Soil: Bodily examinations of soil proof, Soil mechanics, Construction & Composition, Baking, Compaction and Agro-soil components, Instrumental evaluation of soil, Interpretation of soil proof, Normal Working Procedures for examination, Dialogue on necessary case research of soil proof

Glass: Forensic examination of glass fractures, Bodily and Microscopic examination of glass proof, Normal Working Procedures for examination, Dialogue on necessary case research of glass proof Paint: Kinds of paint and their composition, bodily examination of paint, instrumental evaluation of pigment, interpretation of paint proof, Normal Working Procedures for examination, Dialogue on necessary case research of paint proof

Fibre: Classification and properties of textile, paper and fibres, Bodily and Instrumental evaluation of fibres proof and dyes, Examination of harm to textiles, yarn, weaving & materials, Assortment of fibre proof, Interpretation of fibre proof, Dialogue on necessary case research of fibre proof

Cement: Cement and different constituents of Constructing supplies and their properties, Identification of adulterated cement and adulterants, Sampling of proof supplies, Bodily and chemical evaluation of cement, cement mortar and cement concrete,

Strategies of research of various constituents of Constructing supplies, Metal bars and metallic physics

Nano-science & Nano-technology: introduction to nanoparticles, nanotubes, utilization of nanotechnology in evaluation of bodily evidences, selectivity of nanoparticles with compatibility and feasibility, Software of nanotechnology in forensic proof evaluation

Arson: Faults and failure of proof of Arson & Fireplace as a result of electrical & mechanical faults/failure, Energy Physics: Voltage, present era and transmission, Present and Energy Transformers, 3-phase electrical energy and Earth faults

8) Collision Investigation and Reconstruction

Street proof, street engineering and design, Grit, Bitumen, soling and paving of cemented roads, identification and interpretation of street obstructions, defects, marks and harm, tyre marks, skid marks

Automobile examination: Vehicle widespread part and failure evaluation, harm evaluation, tyres – sorts velocity and cargo ranking, inflation and failures, brakes –sorts and brake methods, door lock and velocity recording gadgets, security restraint system – idea and examination of seat-belt child-seat and air-bag, vehicular fires

Pace evaluation: car and street kinematics, coefficient of friction and drag issue, strategies of figuring out drag issue, affect on braking distance

Pace dedication: skid marks measurement, velocity from car yaw, velocity calculation on totally different street surfaces, falls, flips and vault speeds, particular velocity drawback

Motorbike accident investigation: forms of motor cycle, dynamics rake and turning, acceleration and breaks, mechanical consideration and slide to cease velocity dedication

Hit and run investigation- examination of suspect car, assortment of proof & management samples, inter-comparison of analytical results of bodily proof

Reconstruction of accident utilizing Pc Aided Designing.

II. Forensic Ballistics

a) Firearms and Ammunitions, their classification, particulars of varied small arms utilized in crime – shotguns, rifles, revolvers, pistols, carbines, improvised firearms. Bore and caliber, choke, automated mechanisms employed in small arms, rifling – class traits of rifled bore, objective of rifling, forms of rifling, strategies to provide rifling, varied locks utilized in small arms. Head-space.

Varied forms of primers/ priming mixtures, propellants, shotgun ball ammunition, varied sorts of bullets, head-stamp markings. Varied bodily, ballistic & practical exams of ammunitions.

b) Bodily proof and different clues Dealing with of proof, varied precautions.

c) Inner Ballistics: Ignition and burning of propellants, degressive and progressive powders, fee of burning propellants, components affecting inner ballistics of projectiles, inner ballistics of 12-bore weapons, recoil.

d) Exterior Ballistics: Equations of movement of projectiles, principal drawback of exterior ballistics, vacuum trajectory – calculation of varied components, impact of air resistance on trajectory, factors of distinction between trajectories in air and vacuum, nature of air resistance phenomena, base-drag, yaw, cross-wind power, overturning moments, stability – fin stabilization and gyroscopic stability, stability issue, nutation and precessional motions of bullets, drift, Magnus impact, Greenhill method, form of projectile – kind issue, ballistic coefficient, calculation of trajectories of varied small arm bullets, calculation of trajectories of shotgun projectile, use of ballistic tables, projectile velocity dedication, dedication of velocity of shot-charge, Doppler-radar technique. Automated system of trajectory computation. Falling bullets – limiting velocity, drop, use of lead as bullet materials.

e) Terminal Ballistics: Interplay and penetration of varied smallarm projectiles in varied tissues. Threshold velocity for penetration of pores and skin, flesh and bones, threshold power/ casualty standards, power density, ricochet, varied points of wound ballistics together with wounds of entrance/ exit/ monitor of projectile, gunshot accidents attributable to several types of firearm ammunitions. Momentary and everlasting cavities, supplies simulating human physique, gunshot wound as a perform of form of nostril of bullet, putting velocity, nature of goal, tumbling of bullet, impact of instability of bullet, impact of intermediate goal. Affect of vary, identification of gunshot accidents, movement of projectile in dense medium.

f) Class and Particular person traits of fired bullets and cartridge circumstances and their linkage with the suspected firearms, comparability microscope, photomicrography, supply correspondence, linkage of fired photographs with shotguns.

g) Willpower of vary of firing in circumstances of firing by smooth-bore and rifled firearms, components affecting vary of firing, stringing of photographs, impact of string on sample, Cart-wheel sample, balling, Walkers’ Take a look at, IR images.

h) Chemical exams for examination and identification of shotgun holes in varied targets. Gunshot residue. Identification of shooter.

Scientific strategies of capturing reconstruction, suicide, homicide, accident, selfdefense and encounter circumstances. –medico-legal report, fundamental ballistic details, laboratory examination reviews, Documentation and analysis of bullet holes in varied supplies, ricochet marks, pellet sample in varied targets

i) Instrumentation strategies – AAS, NAA, SEM/EDXA, ICP-MS, ASV and their utility in ballistic examination.

j) Arms Act and Arms Rule, 2016.


Lascia un commento

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *