Elective IV: Forensic Chemical Sciences (Truth & Truth Plus Could 2024)


Part B – Syllabus



a) Alcohols and alcoholic drinks, Evaluation of alcohols, nation made liquor, illicit liquor and medicinal preparations, Evaluation of assorted denaturants of alcohol, detection and willpower of ethanol, methanol, aldehyde, ester by color check and instrumental approach, Related sections of Excise Act.

b) Metals and alloys their composition; Significance of study, purity of metals, hint parts, asht dhatu and their evaluation

c) Petroleum merchandise and their adulterations: Evaluation of petrol, kerosene, diesel, lubricants by BIS strategies and ASTM strategies. Detection of adulterants of gasoline, diesel and engine oils. Evaluation of residues in forensic displays, chromatography evaluation of petrol, kerosene, diesel and different solvents for detection of adulteration.

d) Fireplace and Arson; Examination of crime scene, assortment of displays, trigger of fireside and origin of fireside, methodology of identification of inflammable materials

e) Evaluation of lure case:- Mechanism of color response, issue affecting the color, detection of phenolphthalein and alkali used, methodology of detection of degraded product on conversion of pink color to colourless answer by TLC and UV seen spectrophotometer. Picture and videography and voice recording as supporting proof.

f) Dyes: Function of dyes in crime investigation, comparability of dyes in fibres and completely different inks by TLC and UV-VIS Spectrophotometer.

g) Pesticides: Several types of pesticide, formulation, identification of pesticide, commonplace or sub-standard or substituted pesticides. Willpower of purity by evaluation by chemical check, skinny layer chromatography, extremely violet – seen spectrophotometry and gasoline liquid chromatography. Willpower of stage of pesticide in water, chilly drinks, milk, meals supplies.


a) Explosive and Explosion: Introduction, classification of explosives- major, secondary or Excessive explosive, detonators pyro approach propellant IEDs and firing mechanism of IEDs

b) Function of Forensic scientist in Submit blast investigation, Explosion results, Assortment of samples, Technical report body work, Handmade crude bombs, Analysis and evaluation of explosion web site and reconstruction of sequence of occasions.

c) Evaluation of explosive: Strategies for extraction of explosive from put up blast materials/ particles, Qualitative evaluation of explosives and explosion residue by color check, TLC/HPTLC and Excessive Efficiency Liquid Chromatography and FTIR, GC-Mass, LC-Mass. X ray diffraction, gear used for detection of explosives and explosive gadgets.

d) Narcotic Medicine and Psychotropic Substances: Sampling process and related notification, Laboratories authorised to conduct examination, an professional authorised to report NDPS circumstances.

e) Legal guidelines associated to forensic curiosity, Frequent terminology and NDPS act Small amount and industrial amount and extent of punishment

f) Classification of Medicine generally encountered: Narcotics, depresants, stimulants, hallucinogens designer medication, membership medication and date rape medication.

g) Evaluation of Medicine: Narcotic medication, Depressants, Barbiturates, methaquolone, Benzodiazipines, Stimulants, Hallucinogens, Designer Medicine, Membership medication, date rape medication and precursors by Subject check kits for medication and precursors utilizing color check, skinny layer chromatography and additional affirmation by HPTLC, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fuel Chromatography, HPLC, GC-Mass Spectrometry and LC-Mass Spectrometry, Raman Spectroscopy and FTIR after extraction of drug from the seized pattern. Detection of frequent adulterants and willpower of proportion purity in seized pattern

h) Court docket testimony and case research.


a) Forensic Toxicological examination and its significance. Branches of Toxicology: Introduction & Scope, Classification of poisons, based mostly on their origin, mode of motion, chemical nature, poisons and poisoning in India, Classification of poisoning: unintentional, homicidal, suicidal and miscellaneous, signal and signs of poisons and antidotes. Elements affecting the depth of poisoning. Significance of autopsy examination in poisoning circumstances.

Data to be collected by Investigating Officers and precautions to be adopted whereas looking out crime scene and amassing proof materials in poisoning circumstances. Legal guidelines associated to Poisons. Poison Act 1919, Medicine Act 1940 and 1955, Drug and Beauty Act 1940 and amendments

b) Classification of matrices- Organic, non-biological and Viscera. Completely different strategies of extraction for unstable poisons of natural and inorganic nature: Solvent extraction, distillation /steam distillation, micro diffusion, dialysis, dry ashing, moist digestion, modified Stas-Otto methodology, ammonium sulphate methodology. Isolation and clear up process, separation of poisons and medicines utilizing chromatographic methods. Identification and estimation of poisons and medicines utilizing chromatographic and spectrophotometric and different instrumental strategies, significance of analytical research with forensic examination.

c) Evaluation of various Gases and unstable poisons, Evaluation of poisonous metals and anions

d) Evaluation of pesticides: Organo chlorinated, organo phosphoro, carbamates, pyrethroids, aluminum phosphide and zinc phosphide e) Strategies of study of acidic/ impartial and alkaline medication and poison generally enconterd for forensic evaluation

f) Systematic methodology of extraction of poisons each natural and inorganic from organic matrix and their detection, identification and quantitation by color check, TLC, HPLC, HPTLC, GLC, UV –seen spectrophotometry FTIR, Mass spectrometry. Qualitative and amount evaluation of Inorganic poisons utilizing instrument AAS, ICP, ion chromatography, ion selective electrode.


a) Trendy methodology of extraction and Isolation: Stable part extraction, strong part micro-extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, preparative TLC and HPTLC

b) Extraction of poisons from blood, urine, abdomen wash and vomit, chilly drink, meals materials, toxicological evaluation of Nail, Bones and bile in decomposed supplies. Interpretation of toxicological discovering and preparation of experiences, limitation of methodology and bother taking pictures in toxicological evaluation, disposal of study samples

c) Hair evaluation: Significance of hair for forensic examination of medicine and poisons, process for assortment, storage and preservation. Strategies of extraction of medicine and poisons from hair and their identification utilizing instrumental methods

d) Metabolism: numerous path of metabolism of frequent poisons, their distribution and excretion and methodology of extraction, isolation and identification of metabolites.

e) Meals poisons: what’s meals poisoning, meals poisoning on account of frequent chemical and bacterial, signal and symptom of meals poisoning, assortment and preservation of proof materials, detection and identification by color check and instrumental methods

f) Plant poison: introduction, classification and their major lively constituents, methodology of extraction of plant materials from organic pattern, identification by color check and TLC and UV- Seen spectrophotometer and different instrumental methods

g) Animal Poisons: Generally encountered toxic animals, snake and different bugs, signal and signs, isolation of poison from organic materials. Identification of poison by numerous chemical constituents, precipitant check and gel diffusion and immunological check

h) Frequent poison utilized in animal poisoning together with wild life animals

i) Environmental pollutants- Inorganic and Inorganic and their identification and quantitation

j) Quaternary ammonium medication and poisons Introduction and issues related to their extraction from prescription drugs and organic supplies. Technique of extraction utilizing ion pair and identification by TLC and UV seen spectrophotometry and different instrumental methods


a) Primary idea of atomic and molecular spectra.

b) Fundamentals of Instrumentation, pattern preparation, purification of pattern earlier than evaluation standardization and calibration of instrument

c) Extremely violet and visual spectrophotometry: Primary precept and instrumentation, Lambert and Beers Regulation. Function in identification and quantitation in forensic chemistry and toxicology and its limitations. Fluorescence and phosphorescence and its software

d) Infrared spectrophotometry: Primary precept, parts, Pattern dealing with, Dispersive and Fourier remodel spectrophotometry, (FTIR). Qualitative evaluation and interpretation of IR spectra, purposes.

e) Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS): Instrumentation and methods, interference in AAS, background correction strategies, graphite furnace quantitative evaluation. Functions in forensic chemistry and toxicology

f) Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES)-Inductively Coupled Plasma and ICP-MS instrument for detection and quantitation of inorganic metals, alloys and poisons in organic supplies. Benefit of ICP over AAS and vice –versa

g) Chromatography Strategies; Common ideas of paper chromatography, column chromatography, TLC, gasoline chromatography, HPTLC and HPLC for identification and quantitation.

h) X ray spectroscopy- X ray absorption and fluorescence their software in forensic chemistry and toxicology


a) Mass spectrometry: Primary precept and part of Instrument pattern chamber, ionization methodology, mass analyser, vaccum system, knowledge dealing with. Tandem mass spectrometry. Interpretation of spectra. Utility in Forensic chemistry and forensic toxicology

b) Raman spectroscopy Primary precept, pattern dealing with Utility in Forensic chemistry and toxicology. Benefit of Raman over IR/FTIR

c) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): fundamental precept and instrumentation, interpretation of spectra and software

d) Measurement of radioactivity, carbon relationship, Neutron Activation evaluation and its software in forensic science

e) Scanning Electron Microscope Coupled with EDXR, benefit of SEM over optical microscope. Utility in Forensic Science

f) Hyphenated techniques- Fuel Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry, Liquid chromatography coupled with Mass spectrometry, GLC- FTIR.


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